When it comes to domesticated farm animals, the first animal species that comes to mind is Cow. Cows most relate to domestic livestock and agriculture; therefore, cows are economically advantageous animals for humans. The Cows are mammals that belong to the order Artiodactyla and belong to the family of Bovidae and the tribe of Bovini. In Latin, the cows are named Bos.
The cows depend on grasses; their central feeding is grazing. The mouths and stomachs of cows are formed in a way that will make it easy for them to digest the food they eat. They have wide mouths and specialized teeth for feeding purposes. Their mouth is formed with teeth and an adhesive pad that will help them to rip up grass. Their circular movement while chewing the grass will allow them to chew it effectively. The Cow’s stomach is also formed uniquely than the other mammals. The Cow has a four-chambered stomach that is more massive than the other mammals. This four-chambered stomach act as a fermentation vat. The re-chewing and regurgitating of food help the cow digest the food using a four-chambered stomach. The re-chewing and the regurgitating process is called “chewing the cud”. The cows have four teats to produce milk; the cattle feed the calves in their childhood.
It is a common belief that all cows have horns, but some breeds are genetically hornless, and some have destroyed horns. Both male and female cows have horns, but the sizes differ according to the breed. The Texas longhorns and Afrikan Ankole-Watusi cows have enormous horns among the cow species. A mature female cow weighs 360 to 1100 kilograms, and a well-built mature male cow will weigh 450 to 1800 kilograms.
Types of cattle that taken for daily use
The Ayrshire is a hardy cattle that originated from Scotland. They appear in the colours white and brown with fleshy bodies. This breed is distributed in temperate lands.
The Guernsey breed has short horns; they appear brown with white markings. The Guernsey breed originated from Guernsey, and at present, this breed is distributed in North America, Australia and the United Kingdom.
- Brown Swiss
Brown Swiss is a breed that originated from Switzerland, and at present, they are distributed in Europe and South and North America. They are a hardy breed with wedge-shaped bodies and in brown colour (dark or light)
- Holstein Friesian
The Holstein Friesian breed is both horn and hornless way. The origination of the Holstein Friesian is in the Netherlands, and at present, they are distributed in America, Australia and South Africa.
The breed Jersey originated from the island of Jersey, and at present, they are distributed all over the world. The Jersey breed’s appearance is similar to the Guernsey breed.
- Milking Shorthorn
The Milking Shorthorn is a cow breed in red, roan, red and white and in white colours. The origin of Milking Shorthorn is England, and they are distributed in Australia and the United States.
- Red Poll
The Red Poll is a hornless breed from the same place as the Milking Shorthorn breed. At present, the Red Polls are distributed in North America. They appear in red and white colours.
The cattle breeds that domesticate for beef
Beefmaster is a beef cattle that originated in Texas and was developed in 1908. This breed usually comes in red with white spots over the body.
- Belted Galloway
Belted Galloway is a hardy breed that grows in a rigorous climate. The Belted Galloway breed first originated in Galloway, and at present, they are distributed in Southwest Scotland. This breed usually appears in black and has a distinctive white belt.
The Charolais breed originated in France and is currently distributed in Mexico and the United States. Usually, this breed is white, and they are more extensive. Primarily the Charolais breed is used for crossbreeding.
The Limousin breed is formed in red-gold colour, and they come into the category of horned cows, the Limousins have long bodies compared to other cows. This breed originated from France and North America and has now become a habitat for this breed.
- Santa Gertrudis
Santa Gertrudis originates from the United States, and at present, they are distributed in Cuba, Australia, and South America. They appear in deep red with horned bodies.
Switzerland is the originating place of the Simmental breed. They come to the category of horned cows and appear in red and white. The Simmentals are an extensively crossbred breed that has spread almost everywhere in the world.
- Polled Hereford
The Polled Hereford is a cow breed that has widespread and first originated in the United States. This breed is a mutation of the Hereford that is muscular and hornless.
- Hereford whiteface
The Hereford whiteface breed is a low-set and compact breed of red and white colour. This breed is a popular beef breed in most countries. The distribution of the Hereford whiteface breed originated in England, and at present, they have been distributed United Kingdom, Australia, South America, North America and New Zealand.
Brangus is a beef breed that developed in 1903 in the United States. This breed is massive and they are hornless.
- Belgian Blue
The Belgian Blue is a breed that is larger with prominent muscles, and they have straight back with hardy bodies. Belgium is the origin of the Belgian Blue breed and is presently distributed in the United States.
The breed Angus also called Aberdeen Angus to appear in a low-set body with a black compact; they belong to the category of the hornless Cow. The Angus is a breed that is well adaptable to any climatic condition. They originated in Scotland and are distributed in the United States and the United Kingdom.
Zebu is a beef breed that originated in India. This breed spread worldwide and is called by the other name, brahman. The Zebu has a large shoulder hump and appears in grey. They are extensive crossbreeds among the cow breeds.
Chianina is originated in Italy and distributed in North America at present. They are formed in white colour and have large muscular legs. The Chianina is a giant cattle breed in the world.
Normande originated in France. They are medium-sized breeds that appear in black and white colours. They have coloured patches around their eyes, and their heads are more diminutive. The Normande is a double-purpose breed that is distributed in South America at present.
The Shorthorn, also called Durham, comes with both a horned and hornless figure, usually appearing in red or roan colours. The distribution of the Shorthorn breed is in England and every cattle-raising area in the world.